Tourism Information of Azerbaijan,East

Fars Province , is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of Iran . It is in the south of the country , in Iran's Region 2 , and its administrative center is Shiraz . It has an area of 122 ,400 km² . In 2011 , this province had a population of 4.59 million people , of which 67.6% were registered as urban dwellers , 32.1% villagers , and 0.3% nomad tribes . The etymology of the word "Persian" (From Latin Persia , from Ancient Greek Περσίς (Persis)) , found in many ancient names associated with Iran , is derived from the historical importance of this region .

Fârs , or known in Old Persian as Pârsâ , is the original homeland of the ancient Persians . The native name of the Persian language is Pârsi . Persia and Persian both derive from the Hellenized form Περσίς Persis of the root word Pârs . The Old Persian word was Pârsâ .



The ancient Persians were present in the region from about the 10th century BC , and became the rulers of the largest empire the world had yet seen under the Achaemenid dynasty which was established in the late 6th century BC , at its peak stretching from Thrace-Macedonia , Bulgaria-Paeonia and Eastern Europe proper in the west , to the Indus Valley in its far east . The ruins of Persepolis and Pasargadae , two of the four capitals of the Achaemenid Empire , are located in Fars .

The Achaemenid Empire was defeated by Alexander the Great in 333 BC , incorporating most of their vast empire . Shortly after this the Seleucid Empire was established . However it never extended its power beyond the main trade routes in Fars , and by the reign of Antiochus I or possibly later Persis emerged as an independent state that minted its own coins .

The Seleucid Empire was subsequently defeated by the Parthians in 238 BC . By 205 BC , Antiochus III had extended his authority into Persis and it ceased to be an independent state .

Babak was the ruler of a small town called Kheir . Babak's efforts in gaining local power at the time escaped the attention of Artabanus IV , the Arsacid Emperor of the time . Babak and his eldest son Shapur I managed to expand their power over all of Persis .

The subsequent events are unclear , due to the sketchy nature of the sources . It is however certain that following the death of Babak around 220 , Ardashir who at the time was the governor of Darabgird , got involved in a power struggle of his own with his elder brother Shapur . The sources tell us that in 222 , Shapur was killed when the roof of a building collapsed on him .

At this point , Ardashir moved his capital further to the south of Persis and founded a capital at Ardashir-Khwarrah (formerly Gur , modern day Firouzabad) . After establishing his rule over Persis , Ardashir I rapidly extended the territory of his Sassanid Persian Empire , demanding fealty from the local princes of Fars , and gaining control over the neighboring provinces of Kerman , Isfahan , Susiana , and Mesene .

Artabanus marched a second time against Ardashir I in 224 . Their armies clashed at Hormizdegan , where Artabanus IV was killed . Ardashir was crowned in 226 at Ctesiphon as the sole ruler of Persia , bringing the 400-year-old Parthian Empire to an end , and starting the virtually equally long rule of the Sassanian Empire , over an even larger territory , once again making Persia a leading power in the known world , only this time along with its arch-rival and successor to Persia's earlier opponents ; the Byzantine Empire .

The Sassanids ruled for 425 years , until the Muslim armies conquered the empire . Afterwards , the Persians started to convert to Islam , this making it much easier for the new Muslim empire to continue the expansion of Islam .

Persis then passed hand to hand through numerous dynasties , leaving behind numerous historical and ancient monuments ; each of which has its own values as a world heritage , reflecting the history of the province , Iran , and West Asia . The ruins of Bishapur , Persepolis , and Firouzabad are all reminders of this . Arab invaders brought about a decline of Zoroastrian rule and made Islam ascendant from the 7th century .


Administrative divisions

Fars province is located in the south of Iran . It neighbours Bushehr Province to the west , Hormozg�?n Province to the south , Kerman and Yazd provinces to the east , Isfahan province to the north and Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province to the northwest . According to the latest divisions , the province contains the following counties .


Climate and wildlife

There are three distinct climatic regions in the Fars Province . First , the mountainous area of the north and northwest with moderate cold winters and mild summers . Secondly , the central regions , with relatively rainy mild winters , and hot dry summers . The third region located in the south and southeast , has cold winters with hot summers . The average temperature of Shiraz is 16.8 °C , ranging between 4.7 °C and 29.2 °C .

The geographical and climatic variation of the province causes varieties of plants ; consequently , variation of wildlife has been formed in the province . Additional to the native animals of the province , many kinds of birds migrate to the province every year . Many kinds of ducks , storks and swallows migrate to this province in an annual parade . The main native animals of the province are gazelle , deer , mountain wild goat , ram , ewe and many kinds of birds .

The province of Fars includes many protected wildlife zones . The most important protected zones are :

·         Toot Siah (Black Berry) Hunt Forbidden Zone , which is located at the end of Boanat region

·         Basiran Hunt Forbidden Zone , which is located 4 kilometers south to Abadeh

·         Bamu National Park , which is located north-east of Shiraz

·         Estahban Forest Park (Parke Jangaly) , which is located on the outskirts of Touraj mountain

·         Hermoodlar Protected Zone , which is located east to Larestan

Arjan Meadow 22 km2 (8.5 sq mi) and Lake Parishan 40 km2 (15 sq mi) are designated Wetlands of International Importance under the Ramsar convention .



Agriculture is of great importance in Fars . The major products include cereal (wheat and barley) , citrus fruits , dates , sugar beets and cotton . Fars has major petrochemical facilities , along with an oil refinery , a factory for producing tires , a large electronics industry , and a sugar mill . Tourism is also a large industry in the province . UNESCO has designated an area in the province , called Arjan (known as Dasht e Arjan) as a biosphere reserve . Shiraz , provincial capital of Fars , is the namesake of Shirazi wine . A large number of wine factories existed in the city .



The main ethnic group in the province constitutes of Persians (including Larestani people) , while Qashqai , Lurs , Kurds , Arabs , Georgians , and Circassians constitute minorities .

Due to the geographical characteristics of Fars and its proximity to the Persian Gulf , Fars has long been a residing area for various peoples and rulers of Iran . However , the tribes of Fars including , Mamasani Lurs , Khamseh and Kohkiluyeh have kept their native and unique cultures and lifestyles which constitute part of the cultural heritage of Iran attracting many tourists .

Among the hundreds of thousands of Georgians and Circassians that were transplanted to Persia under Shah Abbas I , his predecessors , and successors , a certain amount of them were to guard the main caravan routes ; many were settled around Āsp�?s and other villages along the old Isfahan-Shiraz road . By now the vast majority Caucasians that were settled in Fars have lost their cultural , linguistic , and religious identity , having mostly being assimilated into the population .

The province has a population of 4.6 million approximately .



Shiraz Airport is the main international airport of the province and the second in the country . The cities of Lar and Lamerd also have airports linking them with Shiraz and Tehran and nearby Persian Gulf countries such as the UAE and Bahrain . Shiraz is along the main route from Tehran to southern Iran .


Higher education

The Fars Province is home to many higher education institutes and universities . The main universities of the province include Shiraz University of Medical Sciences , Shiraz University , Shiraz University of Technology and Islamic Azad University of Shiraz .

Vakil Mosque

The Vakil Mosque is a mosque in Shiraz , southern Iran , situated to the west of the Vakil Bazaar next to its entrance . This mosque was built between 1751 and 1773 , during the Zand period ; however , it was restored in the 19th century during the Qajar period . Vakil means regent , which was the title used by Karim Khan , the founder of Zand Dynasty . Shiraz was the seat of Karim Khan’s government and he endowed many buildings , including this mosque .
Vakil Mosque covers an area of 8,660 square meters . It has only two iwans instead of the usual four , on the northern and southern sides of a large open court . The iwans and court are decorated with typical Shirazi haft rangi tiles , a characteristic feature of the art and industry of Shiraz during the latter half of the 18th century . Its night prayer hall (Shabestan) , with an area of approximately 2,700 square meters , contains 48 monolithic pillars carved in spirals , each with a capital of acanthus leaves . The minbar in this hall is cut from a solid piece of green marble with a flight of 14 steps and is considered to be one of the master pieces of the Zand period . The exuberant floral decorative tiles largely date from the Qajar period .

Shah Cheragh

Sh?h Chér?gh is a funerary monument and mosque in Shiraz , Iran , housing the tomb of the brothers Ahmad and Muhammad , sons of Mūs? al-K?dhim and brothers of ‘Alī ar-Ridh? . The two took refuge in the city during the Abbasid persecution of Shia Muslims .
The tombs became celebrated pilgrimage centres in the 14th century when Queen Tashi Khatun erected a mosque and theological school in the vicinity .
Sh?h-é-Chér?gh is Persian for "King of the Light" . The site was given this name due to the nature of the discovery of the site by Ayatullah Dastgh?'ib (the great grandfather of the contemporary Ayatullah Dastgh?'ib) . He used to see light from a distance and decided to investigate the source . He found that the light was being emitted by a grave within a graveyard . The grave that emitted the light was excavated , and a body wearing an armor was discovered . The body was wearing a ring saying al-‘Izzatu Lill?h , Ahmad bin Mūs? , meaning "The Pride belongs to God , Ahmad son of Musa" . Thus it became known that this was the burial site of the sons of Mūs? al-K?dhim .

Tomb of Hafez

The Tomb of Hafez and its associated memorial hall , the H?fezieh , are two memorial structures erected in the northern edge of Shiraz , Iran , in memory of the celebrated Persian poet Hafez . The open pavilion structures are situated in the Musalla Gardens on the north bank of a seasonal river and house the marble tomb of Hafez . The present buildings , built in 1935 and designed by the French architect and archaeologist André Godard , are at the site of previous structures , the best-known of which was built in 1773 . The tomb , its gardens , and the surrounding memorials to other great figures are a focus of tourism in Shiraz .


Pasargadae was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great who had issued its construction (559-530 BC) ; it was also the location of his tomb . It was a city in ancient Persia , located near the city of Shiraz (in Pasargad County) , and is today an archaeological site and one of Iran's UNESCO World Heritage Sites .
Cyrus the Great began building the capital in 546 BC or later ; it was unfinished when he died in battle , in 530 or 529 BC . The remains of the tomb of Cyrus' son and successor Cambyses II have been found in Pasargadae , near the fortress of Toll-e Takht , and identified in 2006 .
Pasargadae remained the capital of the Achaemenid empire until Cambyses II moved it to Susa ; later , Darius founded another in Persepolis . The archaeological site covers 1.6 square kilometres and includes a structure commonly believed to be the mausoleum of Cyrus , the fortress of Toll-e Takht sitting on top of a nearby hill , and the remains of two royal palaces and gardens . Pasargadae Persian Gardens provide the earliest known example of the Persian chahar bagh , or fourfold garden design (see Persian Gardens) .

Eram Garden

Eram Garden is a historic Persian garden in Shiraz , Iran .The garden , and the building within it , are located at the northern shore of the Khoshk River in the Fars province .
Both the building and the garden were built during the middle of thirteenth century by the Ilkhanate or a paramount chief of the Qashqai tribes of Pars . The original layout of the garden however , with its quadripartite Persian Paradise garden structure was most likely laid in eleventh century by the Seljuqs , and was then referred to as the "B?q e Sh?h" ("the king's garden" in Persian) and was much less complicated or ornamental . Cornelius de Bruyn , a traveller from the Netherlands , wrote a description of the gardens in the eighteenth century .
Over its 150 years the structure has been modified , restored or stylistically changed by various participants . The building faces south along the long axis . It was designed by a local architect , Haji Mohammad Hasan . The structure housed 32 rooms on two stories , decorated by tiles with poems from the poet Hafez written on them . The structure underwent renovation during the Zand and Qajar dynasties .
In 1965 , Sir Denis Wright , a British ambassador in Iran , was invited by the Chancellor of Shiraz University , Asadollah Alam , to a party in Eram Garden for Princess Alexandra of the Oglivy . The compound came under the protection of Pahlavi University during the Pahlavi era , and was used as the College of Law . the building housed the Asia Institute .
Today , Eram Garden and building are within Shiraz Botanical Garden (established 1983) of Shiraz University . They are open to the public as a historic landscape garden . They are World Heritage Site , and protected by Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization .

Afif-Abad Garden

Afif-Abad Garden , originally the Golshan Garden , is a museum complex in Shiraz , Iran .
Located in the affluent Afif-Abad district of Shiraz , the complex was constructed in 1863 . It contains a former royal mansion , a historical weapons museum , and a Persian garden , all open to the public .
The Golshan Garden is one of the oldest gardens in Shiraz .
During the Safavid dynasty , it was used as a palace by the Safavid Kings .
The current main building was constructed by Mirza Ali Mohammad Khan Qawam II in 1863 . He bought a nearby qanat to water his garden . After his death , the garden was eventually inherited by Afife , thus being called "Afif-Abad" .
In 1962 , it was restored by the army . It now functions as a weapons museum .

Mausoleum of Saadi

In the 13th century came two more outstanding figures - Saadi and Molavi, both poets. They overshadowed other literary giants such as Nasser-eddin Tousi known for his Book of Victory (75,000 couplets), Hamdollah Mostowfi, a historian and geographer, Joveini who wrote a history of the conquest of the Moguls of India, and Rashid-eddin who produced the comprehensive History. Joveini was probably the most accomplished exponent of the prized art of verbal arabesque and is considered as the best of all Persian historians. But above them all towers Saadi born about 1184, who wrote the Golestan (Garden of Roses) and the Bustan (Orchard), two of the world's great masterpieces. The Bustan probably has no like or parallel in Persian or any other language for elegance, eloquence, fluency, delicacy, charm, wisdom, and insight, Saadi was also a great lyrical poet, second only to Hafez.


Persepolis , literally meaning "city of Persians" , was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (ca. 550-330 BCE) . Persepolis is situated 60 km northeast of the city of Shiraz in Fars Province in Iran . The earliest remains of Persepolis date back to 515 BCE . It exemplifies the Achaemenid style of architecture . UNESCO declared the ruins of Persepolis a World Heritage Site in 1979 .