Tourism Information of Qazvin

Golest�?n Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran , located in the north-east of the country south of the Caspian Sea . Its capital is Gorgan .

The province was put as part of Region 1 upon the division of the provinces into 5 regions solely for coordination and development purposes on June 22nd , 2014 .

Golest�?n was split off from the province of Mazandaran in 1997 . It has a population of 1.7 million (2011) and an area of 20,380 km² . The province is divided into the following twelve counties (shahrestans) : Aliabad County , Aqqala County , Azadshahr County , Bandar-e Gaz County , Gonbad-e Qabus County , Gorgan County , Kalaleh County , Kordkuy County , Maraveh Tappeh County , Minudasht County , Ramian County , and Torkaman County . Present-day Gorgan was called Esterabad until 1937 .

 

The name

Gorg�?n , Hyrcania (in Latin) , and Υρκανία (in Ancient Greek , meaning "the district of the wolves") were all previously referred to as Vark�?na in the Behistun Inscription . Wolves are still seen in the vicinity .

 

History

Human settlements in this area date back to 10 000 BCE . Evidence of the ancient city of Jorjan can still be seen near the current city of Gonbad-e Kavus . It was an important city of Persia located on the Silk Road .

Under the Achaemenid Iran , it seems to have been administered as a sub-province of Parthia and is not named separately in the provincial lists of Darius and Xerxes . The Hyrcanians , however , under the leadership of Megapanus , are mentioned by Herodotus in his list of Xerxes’ army during the invasion of Greece .

 

Demographics

·         Persians

·         Turkmens

·         Mazandarani

·         Balochis

·         Zabolis

The Turkmens reside in the north of the province , a plain called Turkmen Sahra , this former nomadic people live in this area from 15th century , main cities of whom is Gonbad-e Kavus and Bandar Torkaman . Turkmens are Muslim and follow the Hanafi school of Sunni interpretation . They are a sizable minority at cities such as Gorgan , Ali Abad , Kalaleh and many of eastern townships .

Other ethnic groups such as Baluchs , Qezelbashs , Kazakhs , Georgians , and Armenians also reside in this area , and have preserved their traditions and rituals .

Recent decades has seen a huge migration to this province , especially from Zabol northest city of Sistan and Baluchestan .

A small minority of Bahá'í Faith also live in Golestan (in Shahpassand) .

 

Culture

The Buwayhid and Ziyarid dynasties of Persia were from this region . They were known for the revival of pre-Islamic Persian culture . For example , Buwayhid leaders entitled themselves as Shâhanshâh , literally king of kings , a term used by Sassanid rulers .

The world's tallest brick tower stands in this province . It is the famous Gonbad-e Qabus , built by a famous Amir of this region .

 

Climate and geography

Golest�?n enjoys mild weather and a temperate climate most of the year . Geographically , it is divided into two sections : The plains , and the mountains of the Alborz range . In the eastern Alborz section , the direction of mountains faces northeast and gradually decreases in height . The highest point of the province is Shavar , with a height of 3,945 meters .

 

Golestan National Park

Golestan National Park in northern Iran is faced with the construction of a road through the forest , allegedly for the ease of traffic for villagers and woodmen but at the expense of losing the only national park in Iran throughout which a range of different climates (humid near the Caspian Sea and desert farther south) is spread .

Golest�?n National Park is Iran's biggest national park which spans three provinces , Golestan , Mazandaran and North Khorasan . Surprisingly , the authorities ignore repeated calls by experts to construct such roads around , instead of through , the forests , which in this way would no longer threaten the animal and plant life .

 

Colleges and universities

1-    Golestan University

2-    Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

3-    Golestan University of Medical Sciences

4-    Islamic Azad University of Azadshahr

5-    Islamic Azad University of Gorgan

6-    Islamic Azad University of Ali Abad katool

Golestan National Park

Golestan National Park , more commonly known as the Golestan Jungle , is a National Park in Iran . It is situated in Golestan Province between the eastern parts of the Elburs Mountains and the western fringes of the Khorasan-Kopet Dag . It comprises 91,890 ha . Golestan National Park reaches from 1000 to 1400 m above sea level and has a variety of habitats , like temperate broad leaf forests , grasslands , shrubs and rocky areas . The fauna is very rich and consists of Persian leopards (Panthera pardus ciscaucasica) , Indian wolves (Canis lupus pallipes) , wild boars (Sus scrofa) , maral deer (Cervus elaphus maral) , roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) , urial (Ovis ammon arkali) , wild goats (Capra aegagrus) and goitered gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa) .

Gonbad-e Qabus tower

Gonbad-e Qabus tower is a monument in Gonbad-e Qabus , Iran , and a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2012 .
The Tower in the central part of the city reaches 72 metres (236 ft) (including the height of the platform) .
The baked-brick-built tower is an enormous decagon building with a conic roof , which forms the golden ratio Phi , that equals 1.618 . The interiors contain the earliest examples of Muqarnas decorative styles . The decagon with its 3 meter-thick wall , divided into 10 sides , has a diameter of 17 m . The Tower was built on such a scientific and architectural design that at the front of the Tower , at an external circle , one can hear one's echo .
The tower was built in 1006 AD on the orders of the Ziyarid Amir Shams ol-Ma'?li Qabus ibn Wushmgir . It is located 3 km north of the ancient city of Jorjan , from where the Ziyarid dynasty ruled . The tower is over 1000 years old .
"This tall palace for the prince Shams ul-Ma'ali , Amir Qabus ibn Wushmgir ordered to build during his life , in the year 397 the lunar Hegira , and the year 375 the solar Hegira" .
Even though the inscription does not explicitly refer to the rumor that the tower was built for the tomb for the prince Ziyarid ruler , it is believed that the Sultan's body was put in a glass coffin and was suspended from the ceiling of the tower .
It has been registered a World Heritage Site , in the tower's upcoming 1,000th anniversary .
Gonbad-e Q?bus or Gonbad-e K?vus is a city in the province of Golestan in Iran . The city tower was built with bricks representing a special art related to the 4th century (Hegira , or 11th century) . This tower which stands on a domed hill with 15 m height is located in the central (principal) park of Gonbad Kavoos city .
Robert Byron , the British travel writer and architectural critic , wrote that it was a photograph of the tower that motivated him to visit Persia . Seeing the tower , he maintained his high opinion of its qualities , writing in The Road to Oxiana , that 'the Gumbad-i-Kabus ranks with the great buildings of the world .

Nahar Khoran

Nahar Khvoran is a Forest in south of Gorgan County , Golestan Province , Iran . This forest is one of the tourist attractions in the north of Iran .

Khalid Nabi Cemetery

Khalid Nabi Cemetery is a cemetery in northeastern Iran's Golestan province near the border with Turkmenistan , roughly 40 miles (64 km) northeast of Gonbad-e Kavous city , in the Gokcheh Dagh hills of Turkmen Sahra . It is mainly situated on a mountain ridge about 1 km distance from the mausoleum called “Khaled Nabi” who according to oral tradition of the Yomut Turkomans was a pre-Islamic prophet and whose mausoleum is visited by them for pilgrimage together with the neighbouring one of Ata Chofun ("Father Shepherd") , his son-in-law .

Great Wall of Gorgan

The Great Wall of Gorgan is a series of ancient defensive fortifications located near Gorgan in the Golest?n Province of northeastern Iran , at the southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea . The western , Caspian Sea , end of the wall is near the remains of the fort at : 37.13981°N 54.1788733°E ; the eastern end of the wall , near the town of Pishkamar , is near the remains of the fort at : 37.5206739°N 55.5770498°E . The title coordinate is for the location of the remains of a fort midway along the wall .
The wall is located at a geographic narrowing between the Caspian Sea and the mountains of northeastern Iran . It is one of several Caspian Gates at the eastern part of a region known in antiquity as Hyrcania , on the nomadic route from the northern steppes to the Iranian heartland . The wall is believed to have protected the Sassanian Empire to the south from the peoples to the north , probably the White Huns . However , in his book "Empires and Walls" Chaichian (2014) questions the validity of this interpretation using historical evidence of potential political-military threats in the region as well as the economic geography of Gorgan Wall's environs .
It is 195 km (121 mi) long and 6-10 m (20-33 ft) wide , and features over 30 fortresses spaced at intervals of between 10 and 50 km (6.2 and 31.1 mi) . It is surpassed only by the Great Wall of China as the longest defensive wall in existence .
Among archaeologists the wall is also known as "The Red Snake" due to the colour of its bricks . In Persian , it is mistakenly named "Alexander Barrier" , as Alexander the Great is said to have passed through the Caspian Gates on his hasty march to Hyrcania and the east . It is also known as the "Anushirvân Barrier" and "Firuz/Piruz Barrier" , and is officially referred to as "Gorgan Defence Wall" . It is known as Qïzïl Yïlan or Qazal Al'an to local Turkmens .

Kaboud-val waterfall

Kaboud-val waterfall also transliterated Kaboud vâl , is a waterfall in Iran's Golestan province . It is near the Aliabad-e katul city about 3 kilometers to the south .
Kaboud-val is the largest full-moss waterfall in Iran and is one of the promenade places in Golestan province . Its height is about six meters and its water is cool and potable .

 

Shirabad Waterfall

The Shirabad Waterfall is a waterfall in the northern Iranian village of Shirabad . It is 7 kilometers south of Khanbebin , in the Fenderesk District of Golestan Province and in the slopes of the Alborz mountains in a forested area . This waterfall is in the form of a stairway and includes 12 large and small waterfalls . Its largest waterfall is 30 metres (98 ft) high and its plunge pool is 40 to 80 metres (130 to 260 ft) deep . There are several caves nearby , which are home to the critically endangered Gorgan salamander .